are bronchial infections contagious - Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects
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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


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 The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

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All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

11. Some times the medical practitioners recommend some asthma related medications for the child. These medications help the child release the mucus jammed inside the child's bronchi tubes. Usually with these medications an inhaler is also prescribed.

In the disease of bronchitis, the air passages amidst the child's lungs & nose swell up owing to the viral infection. This affects the child's bronchi. Bronchi refer to the tubes where in the air passes through in to & out of the child's lungs. Many a times, the tracheas & windpipe are also affected by this inflammation.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

3. As the swelling increases, more & more mucus is produced in the body. 4. The child is most likely to develop acute bronchitis in case the causative virus of the ailment is inhaled in the air that they breathe or it can get passed over from a person coughing.

When you have a bronchitis bout, your bronchial tubes become inflamed and swollen. Each time that this happens, the lining of those tubes becomes scarred. Over time, the more irritation that happens the more excessive mucus production will become. Your tubes lining will become thickened because of the scarring.

- Some find this very repulsive. It has frightening and grim illustrations. Hence the wicked line sketches of "pink puffer" and "blue bloater" looks like depicting the dark ages regarding the hell. People having COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) never deny the fact that they're going to die younger than the cohorts.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents

First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.

If you are experiencing wheezing and coughing, then it is likely you have acute bronchitis. You can tell by listening to your breathing, can you hear a wheezing sound every time you take a breath. Your bronchial tubes may be constricted which is causing the wheezing and coughing. Just make sure you take lots of fluids and rest, the disorder will usually clear up within a few days.

'Is There A Treatment For Chronic Bronchitis' this question is nagging you when there is uncertainty and doubt. For some individuals, bronchitis happens often. This is what is called chronic bronchitis. In these individuals, the bronchitis may not go away, but may lessen in its severity. When this happens, individuals need to be aware of it and seek the help that's needed as soon as possible.

2. The largest risk factor in patients that get COPD is that of smoking. 80 to 90 percent of those that suffer from this condition will be smokers. 90 percent of them will die from it because they smoked.

If your doctor determines that you have asthma, or that your chronic condition is likely to develop asthma, then he or she may recommend additional treatment for your condition. Those that are diagnosised with asthma will need an inhaler and sometimes additional asthma medications.

2. This usually initiates with a continuous irritation in the bronchial tubes. 3. Among children, acute bronchitis is rather common as compared to the chronic type of the ailment. The studies prove that chronic bronchitis hits the children usually when the symptoms of acute bronchitis are not treated well and in time.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

Bronchitis is a respiratory ailment that can happen at all ages. It scares all the parents as they do not want their children to be afflicted with the ailment. A key identification of this ailment is inflammation of a person's bronchi that is a part of our lungs.

The Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis Handbook might help people having COPD and their families to have a very realistic perspective of the disorder. This might allow them to survive confidently and calmly although they've emphysema or chronic bronchitis.

Remember that you don't have to smoke yourself to be a victim of what smoke can do. Just being exposed to it over long periods of time puts you at risk.

i. Runny nose ii. Followed by cough iii. Slight fever iv. Experiencing pain in the back & muscle area v. Sore throat vi. Getting chills

- Some have given the testimonials showing how this handbook helps them very much. One reviewer told that the respiratory exercises got in this particular handbook helped his father who had serious emphysema. His father's heart fails due to function such that the doctors let him to breathe through oxygen tank to keep the heart from fibulation. However after doing such exercises, his condition becomes better till oxygen isn't needed anymore.

14. Along side, antihistamines must also be prevented as these can worsen the cough of the child. 15. In order to avoid recurring acute bronchitis for the child, you must ensure that the child washes his hands well regularly.

One thing that your doctor's will determine is if there is something else wrong that could possibly be causing your bronchitis in the first place. Some will have additional conditions like asthma that can lead to this problem. But, when there are no underlying causes, bronchitis can be labelled as the cause of your illness and then treated as such.

 
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16. Also make sure that the child keeps away from all sorts of smokes like that coming from the belches or cigarettes. Chronic Bronchitis 1. When the bronchial symptoms persistently afflict the individual for three months or more, it is termed as chronic bronchitis.

From looking at your test results and listening to your lungs, your doctor will determine the right type of treatment for your condition. Usually in cases of acute conditions, this treatment is simply rest and fluids.

Classification of Fluoroquinolones As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Chronic bronchitis is often caused by smoking, but its not the only time that you can get it. You can also get chronic bronchitis from air pollution that is severe or toxic gasses that are in the area in which you work.

9. To verify the ailment developing in the child, the following tests are referred to by the medical practitioners: i. Blood tests ii. X-ray of the chest

Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

Some people who're close with folk with emphysema and bronchitis are usually angry, frightened and depressed. However, doctors treat their COPD patients, the best way they can. But the fact is that many doctors focus on medical aspects of treatment COPD better than giving rehabilitations.

Chronic bronchitis is a serious health condition that can lead to or even tell you that there is something else wrong with the body. For example, chronic bronchitis can be an indication that you are suffering from asthma or lung disorders. In fact, those that do suffer from chronic bronchitis are more likely to end up with lung cancer than those that do not. Lung cancer is one of the leader's in death among people that smoke for long periods of time.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

Those that suffer from chronic bronchitis start by having an inflammation of their bronchial tubes. These are your air passageways, remember and therefore are very important to be clear so that air can move easily in and out of them allowing you to breathe.

Tips are given on getting the best physician. The treatment options that are very much important to people are discussed thoroughly. You would never worry about the HMO's as the guidelines on dealing them are provided too. Companies which provide supplemental oxygen are enlisted. Even very new techniques for surgery are posted for giving the patients nice options on ways of technological advances which can help to treat their disorders.

Those that suffer from chronic symptoms of bronchitis often develop asthma because of it. This is caused by the long term inflammation of your air passageways. In any case, it is essential that you get help from your doctor in dealing with your condition. Those that are suffering from chronic bronchitis have a very serious illness to consider.

5. 19 percent of those that suffer from COPD will get it from their work environment. Those that suffer from chronic bronchitis start by having an inflammation of their bronchial tubes. These are your air passageways, remember and therefore are very important to be clear so that air can move easily in and out of them allowing you to breathe.

3. Female smokers are more likely to get COPD than men are. 4. If you are a victim of air pollution, second hand smoke, or have a history of infections of the respiratory system, you have an increased risk of getting COPD.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

Bronchitis is of two types - acute & chronic. Acute bronchitis or the short term bronchitis is perhaps the most common among bronchial ailments. Chronic bronchitis usually appears among the adults. The ones who smoke heavily and/or are prone to inhaling the chemical substances have quite many chances to catch chronic bronchitis.

Yury Bayarski is the author of OriginalDrugs.com - website, offering patches and natural health products. More information about antibiotic medications is available on author's website.

8. In case you notice the symptoms given above in the children, the experts say, it is high time that you should take the child to the physician. Initially the doctor does a physical examination and refers to the child's medical history to conclude whether he is suffering with the said ailment or not.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

These products have the goal of reducing the amount of inflammation in your air passageways as well as open them up to allow for better passage to your lungs. This type of medication can be vitally important to those suffering from asthma.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

- Those who're more than 55 years old might feel that hopes are away from them. This handbook has failed to arouse them for leading worthy lives. Instead they're suggesting to study "courage books" having stories of dignity, hope and, capability to cope.

4. Bronchitis must not be taken lightly as this ailment can also lead to other severe conditions like pneumonia. Whenever your child experiences cough or cold, rather than thinking it to be a simple phase take it seriously and consider a visit to your physician as it might get dangerous for the child leading to bronchitis!

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

iii. Lung Tests iv. Pulse Oximetry v. Sputum cultures 10. To cure the acute bronchitis among children the key word is taking rest. You must ensure that the child takes a good & well balanced meal. Also, drinking loads of non-caffeinated fluids is very helpful. Another key tip to cure this ailment is maintaining the in the surroundings of the child. You can do this by placing room humidifiers or keeping wet towels in several places in the house.

5. Therefore, the ailment of acute bronchitis is most oft acquired by the air the child breathes. 6. The symptoms & signs of acute bronchitis among children are:

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Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

Here are some facts you should know about chronic bronchitis. 1. COPD claims some 122,000 deaths each year in the US, as claimed by a study done in 2003. It is one of the leading causes of death.



Abhishek is an ex-bronchitis sufferer and he has got some great tips for Bronchitis Treatment! Download his FREE 100 Pages Ebook, "How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis" from his website http://www.Health-Whiz.com/797/index.htm. Only limited Free Copies available.


 
 
     
 
 





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